Review of ‘The Army in the Roman Revolution’ by Arthur Keaveney (2007)

Keaveny, Arthur. 2007. The Army in the Roman Revolution. London: Routledge.

In the late 2nd and early 1st centuries BCE, the Roman army underwent major reforms which changed both its organizational structure and ideological orientation.  Foremost among these was the recruitment of men from among the capite censi, a class of landless urban peasants who had previously been exempted from military service.  Although there is evidence to suggest that capite censi — like slaves — had previously been enrolled as soldiers in the army, it has become something nearing scripture to see the year 107 BCE as a watershed moment.  In that year, Marius, having experienced difficulty filling the ranks of the army bound to fight Jugurtha, admitted members of the capite censi.  It is as that moment, the narrative continues, that the aspirations of the peasant-soldiery for land first began to hold the state hostage to their demands in a cycle that would bring about the series of disastrous civil wars which ultimately undid the republic.
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Soldiers in the city of Pompeii

I wrote this in response to a reader’s question on  The reader had been reading an excerpt from my undergraduate thesis when she asked to know more about soldiers stationed in the city of Pompeii at the time of Mt Vesuvius’ (in)famous eruption of 79 CE.  The original text of my response has been edited and expanded to include additional commentary, as well as images. Continue reading “Soldiers in the city of Pompeii”